means electricity generated from the flowing water. It is the form of renewable electricity, mostly used in the world. More than 2000 years ago, falling water was used by Greeks. And during the Middle ages with maximum electricity power output about 50 Hp with the help of large wooden water wheels were developed. After the World War I, hydro electricity power design and development fairly well standardized mainly related to thermal plants, transmission and distribution. Modern large-scale water power development credits goes to the British Civil Engineer John Smeaton, who first built large water wheels out of cast iron. The past and present condition of electricity development of Nepal had crossed more than 100 years . The first hydro electricity power constructed was Pharping Hydroelectric Plant (500 Kw) in 1911 AD. In 1966, Dr. Hari Man Shrestha research on the topic, “Castrate of potential water power resources of less studied high mountain regions, with special reference to Nepal” for his PhD Thesis(1966) from Moscow Power Institute, USSR. In this research he determined the total Hydro power potential in Nepal as 83,500 MW and since then, no more further study has been done in this field. So Dr. Shrestha is well known as the Pioneer Hydro power Engineer of Nepal.
Nepal Electricity Authority(NEA)
is playing the role to generate, transmit and distribute the power by planning, constructing, operating and maintaining all the generation, transmission and distribution facilities in Nepal. Nepal’s power systems are both interconnected and isolated since August 16,1985 under the NEA Act 1984. According to the fiscal year 2014/2015 791 MW is actually provided by NEA in which 436.4 MW (NEA), 22 MW (NEA thermal),216.4 MW (IPP) and 116.2 MW (import). The annual peak power demand of the Integrated Nepal Power System (INPP) is estimated to be 1,201 MW. This was the growth rate of 9.7% compared to the preceding fiscal year’s. With the enactment of New Hydro power Development Policy 1992, the sector was opened to the private sector also. Private power Association(PPA) have been registered 148 projects so far and 6 projects of 23.588 MW was developed by IPP’s as of end of fiscal year 13/14.
Political instability and poor governance, lack of transparency in hydro electricity power planning and project preparation, lack of commitment, priority and vision from political level are the reasons behind the minute development of Hydro-development in Nepal.